Thursday, 14 December 2017

Introduction to Data Structure:

The study of computer science encompasses the study of organization and flow of data in a computer. Data Structure is the branch of computer science that unleashes the knowledge of how the data should be organized, how the flow of data should be controlled and how a data structure should be designed and implemented to reduce the complexity and increase the efficiency of the algorithm. A data structure helps you to understand the relationship of one data element with the other and organize it within the memory. Various methods are used to represent data in computers. Hierarchical layers of data structure are used to make the use of data structure easy and efficient. The basic unit of data representation is a bit. The value of bit asserts one of the two mutually exclusive possibilities - 0 or 1. Various combinations of two values of a bit are used to represent data in a different manner in different systems. Eight bits together form one byte which represents a character and one or more than one characters are used to form a string. 
The use of the concrete data structure during design creates lot of difficulties and requires much more effort; such a problem can be avoided by using Abstract Data Type in the design process.

Abstract Data Types:
An Abstract Data Type (ADT) is defined as a mathematical model of the data objects that make up a data type as well as the functions that operate on these objects. An abstract data type is the specification of logical and mathematical properties of a data type or structure. ADT acts as a useful guideline to implement a data type correctly. The specification of an ADT does not imply any implementation consideration. The implementation of an ADT involves the translation of theAlfT's specification into syntax of a particular programming language. The important step is the definition of ADT that involves mainly two parts:
1. Description of the way in which components are related to each other.
2. Statements of operations that can be performed on that data type.

Data Structures are classified into two classes namely:
1. Linear data structure.
2. Non-linear data structure.
In a linear data structure, member elements form a sequence. Such linear structures can be represented in memory by using one of the two basic strategies:
• By having the linear relationship between the elements represented by means of sequential memory location. These linear structures are called arrays.
• By having relationship between the elements represented by pointers. These structures are called linked lists.
There are various non-linear structures, such as trees and graphs and various operations can be performed on these data structures such as:
Traversal- One of the most important operations which involve processing each element in the list.
Searching - Searching or finding any element with a given value or the record with a given key.


Thanks
Mukesh Rajput

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Thanks
Mukesh Rajput